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BBC Hausa of Tuesday, 16 March 2021

Source: bbc.com

Rikicin Syria: Abin da ya sa aka kwashe shekara 10 ana yaki a kasar

Zanga-zangar lumana da aka fara yi wa shugaban Syria shekara 10 da suka wuce ta juye zuwa yakin basasa. Yakin da ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar mutum sama da 380,000 ya tarwatsa birane da dama har ya tssallaka zuwa wasu kasashen.

Ta yaya yakin Syria ya fara?



Tun kafin a fara wannan yakin, 'yan kasar da dama na kukan rashin aikin yi da cin hanci da rashawa da kuma rashin 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki a siyasance karkashin shugabancin Bashar al-Assad, wanda ya maye gurbin mahaifinsa Hafez bayan ya mutu a shekarar 2000.

A watan Maris din 2011, an fara zanga-zangar neman kafa mulkin dimokradiyya a kudancin birnin Deraa, wadda guguwar sauyi a kasashen da ke makwabtaka ta janyo.

Lokacin da gwamnatin Syria ta yi amfani da karfi domin tarwatsa mutane, sai masu zanga-zangar suka fara neman shugaban ya sauka daga mukaminsa.

Rikicin ya bazu kuma ya yi kamari. Nan da nan magoya bayan 'yan hamayya suka dauki makamai, da farko da nufin su kare kansu, daga baya kuma domin su kwace yankunansu da jami'ai suka mamaye. Daga baya Assad ya bayyana halin a matsayin "rikicin ta'addanci da ke samun goyon bayan kasashen ketare".

A hankali yakin ya ci gaba da karuwa ya koma na basasa. Nan da nan aka ci gaba da samun bullar kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye, sai yakin ya wuce matakin rikicin domin ganin bayan shugaba Assad.

Kasashen duniya masu karfin fada a ji suka fara nuna inda suke goyon baya, suka rika aika kudi da makamai da kuma mayaka, yayin da abin ya kazanta sai masu ikirarin jihadi suka bayyana da makamansu., kamar irinsu IS da al-Qaeda. Wannan abu ya ja hankalin manyan kasashen duniya da ke kallon wadannan kungiyoyi a matsayin baraza.

Mayakan Kurdawan Syria da ke son a basu damar shugabancin kansu suma suka danno kai sai dai ba sa yaki da dakarun Assad, bullarsu ta kara dagula yakin.

Mutum nawa ne suka mutu?



Kungiyar kare hakkin dan adama da ke sanya ido kan rikicin Syria wadde ke Birtaniya da sauran wasu kungiyoyi da suke bin yakin, sun ce an kashe mutum 387,118 zuwa watan Disambar 2020, 116,911 daga ciki kuma fararen hula ne.

Cikin wannan adadin ba a sanya mutum 205,300 ba wadanda suka bata kuma aka kaddara sun mutu, ciki har da 88,000 da aka yi amannar sun mutu sakamakon azabtar da su da aka yi a gidajen yarin gwamnati.

Wata kungiya da ke bibiyar rikicin, wadda ta dogara kan bayanan da masu fafutuka a duniya ke fitarwa, ta ce an samu take hakkin dan adam da karya dokokin yaki na kasa da kasa ciki har da kai hare-hare kan fararen hula.

A karshen watan Disambar 2020 ta fitar da bayanin cewa mutum 226,374 sun mutu dalilin yakin, ciki har da fararen hula 135,634.

An kashe kimanin yara 12,000 ko kuma an raunata su, kamar yadda Asusun Tallafawa yara na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya bayyana.

Su wanene ke da hannu a rikicin?

Wadanda suke goyon bayan gwamnati a yakin sune Rasha sa Iran, yayin da Turkiyya da manyan kasashen yammaci da na yankin Larabawa ke goyon bayan 'yan hamayya ta bangarori da yawa sama da shekara 10 baya.

Rasha - Wadda ke da sansanin soji a Syria tun gabanin fara wannan yaki - ta kaddamar da wani harin sama a 2015 domin nuna goyon baya ga shugaba Assad, wanda hakan ya taimaka wa gwamnati sosai a tangal-tangal din da take yi a yakin.

Dakarun Rasha sun ce suna kai hari ne kawai kan 'yan tada kayar baya amma masu fafutuka na cewa suna yawan kashe 'yan tawayen da fararen hula.

Iran - an yi amannar ta girke daruruwan dakarunta kuma ta kashe miliyoyin dalar Amurka domin taimaka wa Assad.

Ta kuma bai wa dubban mayakan Shi'a masu dauke da makamai horo tare da ba su kudi - musammam magoya bayan kungiyar Hezbollah ta Lebanon, kazalika mayakan Iraƙi da Afghanistan da kuma Yemen na ci gaba da yaki tare da dakarun Syria.

Kasashen Amurka da Birtaniya da kuma Faransa na nuna goyon baya ga wadanda suke kallo a matsayin kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye masu matsagaicin ra'ayi. Sai dai sun fi bayar da taimakon abin da bai danganci makamai ba saboda masu ikirarin jihadi ne suka fi yawa a 'yan adawar.

Sai kawance da Amurka ke jagoranta a duniya, wanda shi ma ya kai hari ta sama kuma ya girke dakarunsa a Syria tun 2014 domin taimakawa mayakan Kurdawa da mayakan Larabawa da ake kira SDF domin sake kwace iko da inda dakarun IS suke a yakin arewa maso gabas.

Turkiyya ta wajen ta 'yan hamayya suka fi samun taimako, amma abin da ta i mayar da hanakli shi ne ta yi amfani da 'yan tawayen da suka balle domin murkushe Kurdawan YPG da suka fi yawa a SDF, wadanda ake zargin cewa wani bangare ne na 'yan tawayen Kurdawa da aka haramta musu zama a Turkiyya.

Sojojin Turkiyya da kawayensu na 'yan tawaye sun kwace wani yanki da ke kan iyakacin Syria ta bangaren arewaci, kuma sun danna kai domin dakatar da karfa-karfan da dakarun gwamnati ke yi a yankin Idlib wanda a baya ke karkashin ikon 'yan hamayya.

Saudiyya, wadda ta kagu ta dakile tasirin da Iran ke da shi ta bangaren makamai da kuma bayar da kudade tun daga farkon yakin, kamar yadda masarautar Qatar mai hamayya ta yi.

Isra'ila, ita ma ta yi matukar damuwa kan abin da ta kira "halayyar sojojin Iran" a Syria da kuma kai makamai ga 'yan kungiyar Hezbollah da sauran mayakan Shi'a.

Ta yaya yakin yake shafar kasar?



Kamar yadda ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar dubban mutane, sama da mutum miliyan 2.1 sun samu munanan raunuka ko kuma sun nakasa sakamakon wannan rikici kamar yadda hukumar kare hakkin dan adam da ke bibiyar rikicin ta bayyana.

Sama da rabin 'yan Syria miliyan 22 kafin fara yaki sun bar gidajensu. Wasu kuma miliyan 6.7 suna gudun hijira, da yawansu na zaune a sansanoni daban-daban, yayin da miliyan 5.6 kuma aka yi musu rijista a matsayin 'yan cirani a kasashen waje.

Lebanon da ke makwabtaka da Jordan da Turkiyya wadda kusan kasho 93 ke zaune a cikinta, wadda ke fama da daya daga cikin manyan 'yan gudun hijira a tarihi. An haifi yara 'yan Stria miliyan daya yayin da iyayensu ke neman mafaka.

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ce ya zuwa watan Janairun 2021, akwai mutum 13.4 'yan Syria da ke bukatar kayan agaji, miliyan 6 cikinsu ba cikin matsananciyar bukata, sama da miliayn 12 na fadi tashin yadda za su sami abincin da zai ishe su a ko wacce rana, yayin da yara rabin miliyan ke fama da tamowa.

Cikin shekarar da ta gabata, wannan rikicin ya kara haifar da abin da ba a yi tsammani ba ta bangaren tattalin arziki, abin da ya janyo faduwar kudin Syria kuma kayan abinci suka yi tashin da ba a taba gani ba a tarihi.

Bugu da kari, kasar ta kara gamuwa da cutar korona, wadda har yanzu ba a san adadin wadanda suka kamun ba saboda karancin kayan gwajin cutar da kuma rashin tsarin kiwon lafiya mai kyau.

Duka yankunan da ke makwabtaka da kuma wasu muhmman gine-gine a kasar sun zama kufai sakamakon rikicin da aka kwashe shekaru 10 ana yi. Hotunan tauraron dan adam na MDD sun ce sama da gine-gine 35,000 aka lalata ko aka ruguza a birnin Aleppo kadai, kafin daga baya gwamnati ta kara karbar iko da shi a 2016.

Mafi yawan wuraren tarihin da Syria ta gada an rugur-guza su. Dukkan wurare shida da Unesco ta ayyana a matsayin wuraren tairhi a kasar an lalata su, inda aka ce da gangan mayakan IS suka rika tashin bama-bamai a birnin Palmyra mai cike da tarihi.

Wanene ke iko da Syria a yanzu?



Gwamnati ce ke da iko da manyan biranen kasar a yanzu,amma akwai wani sashe mai yawa na kasar na karkashin ikon 'yan tawaye, masu ikirarin jihadi da kuma bamayyar mayakan Kurdawa na SDF.

Sauran wuraren da 'yan adawa ke rike da su sun hada da arewa maso yammacin lardin idlib da wani yankin arewacin Hama a lardin Aleppo.

A watan Maris din 2020, Rasha da Turkiyya suka shirya zaman tsagaita wuta domin taimaka wa gwamnati sake karbar iko da Idlib. Tun bayan nan ake zaune lafiya, sai dai a ko wanne lokaci yarjejeniyar za ta iya rugujewa.

Shin wannan yakin zai kare?



Yakin bai yi kama da wanda zai kare ba a kowane lokaci a nan kusa, amma kowa ya yi amannar maslahar siyasa za ta iya kawo karshen shi.

Kwamitin sulhu na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya yi kira da a yi amfani da bayanin bayan taron da aka yi a Geneva a 2012, wanda yake maganar mika mulki cikin ruwan sanyi tare da gina gwamnatin gambiza da amincewar ko wanne bangare.

Karo na tara da ake shirin tattaunawar sulhu da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ke shiga tsakani - wadda ake kira GevevaII tana watsewa baran-baran, inda Assad ke nuna cewa ba zai yi sulhu da 'yan adawarsa siyasa ba, wadanda ke ci gaba da kiran ya sauka daga mulki a matsayin wani bangare na sulhun.

A 2017, Rasha da Iran da Turkiyya suka shirya wata tattaunawa sulhu da suka yi wa suna Astana.

An amince cewa za a kafa kwamiti na mutum150 domin sake rubuta wani sabon kundin tsarin mulki, wanda zai samar da zabe mai tsafta da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya za ta sanya wa ido.

Amma a Janairun 2021, wata tawagar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta musamman ta nuna bacin rai kan cewa babu abin da aka fara na sabunta tsarin kasar.

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