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BBC Hausa of Tuesday, 16 March 2021

Source: bbc.com

Abubuwan da suka kamata ku sani game da amfanin gashi a jikin dan Adam

Gashi kan fito a wasu sassa daban-daban na jikin dan adam, kuma amfaninsa ya danganta ga bangaren da ya fito a jikin kamar dai yadda binciken masana da dama suka nuna.

Misali, gashi a jikin dan Adam kan fito a sassa kamar Fatar kai, da hammata, da gira, da sama da kasan idanu, da kunne, da hanci, da kasan mara ko al'aura, da gemu, da gashin-baki da kuma kasumba da ke fitowa a gefen fuskar maza wadanda suka kai shekarun balaga.

Baya ga tafin hannu da na kafa, kusan jikin dan Adam a lullube ya ke da gashi, sai dai wasu bangarorin jikin kananan ne da ba za a iya gani sosai ba, amma kuma sun fi yawa a sassa kamar na fatar kai da kan yi tsawo sosai, wanda shi ma ya dangata ga kwayoyin halitta ko kuma jinsi da kabilar da mutum ya fito.

A yanzu ba ma a da ba, gashi na cigaba da taka muhimmiyar rawa a rayuwar dan adam ta fuskoki da dama, idan aka hada da samar wa wanzamai da masu gyaran gashi na zamani karin kudaden shiga saboda muhimmancin da dan adam ke bai wa gashi wajen kawata shi domin kwalliya da kuma nuna ko shi wanene a cikin jama'a.

Ko shakka babu, a ko wane bangare da duniya gashi na da amfani wajen kawatawa da fitar da asali da kwarjini da kuma kyaun dan adam, don haka mutane ba su cika kin kulawa da shi ba.

Hakan ne ya sa wasu kan sarrafa shi ta yadda za a iya gane manufa da kuma sana'a, kamar misali akwai taurarin wasanni kasa da kasa kamar na kwallon kafa, da mawaka, da fina-finai da makamantansu da aka san su da yanayin yadda suke gyara ko kuma aske gashinsu.

Gashi kan sa a banbance jinsin mace ko namiji, matashi ko maashiya, da magidanci, ko kuma dattijo a ko ina a fadin duniya.

Galibi wasu na daukar gashi a matsayin wani abin alfahari da kuma kwalliya ne kawai, kan haka ne za ka ga mutane kan mayar da hankali wajen gyarawa da kuma sarrafa shi ta yadda za su nuna asalinsu da kuma kimarsu.

Abu ne da ake kashe wa makudan kudade don gyara shi, a shafa mai ko a sauya masa launi da sauransu duk dai don nuna isa da asali.

Kana a wannan zamanin mutane kan yi amfani da yanayin gyaran gashin mutum wajen tantance yanayin kabila ko addinin mutum, da halayya da kuma tarbiyya ko mutuntakar mutum.

To amma abu mafi muhimmanci da masana suka bai wa gashi shi ne irin kariyar da ya ke bai wa dan adam ta fuskoki da dama.

1.Gashin jiki

Masana da dama sun yi bincike tare da fitar da bayanai game da muhimmancin da ke tattare da gashi a jikin dan adam, wanda ba kowa ya sani ba.

Sun bayyana cewa gashi na bayar da kariya ga fatar jiki daga barazanar da yanayin muhalli ke haifarwa, tare da karbar sakonni cikin sauri ya kuma sadar da su ta kafofin jijiyoyin kwakwalwar dan adam da zarar ya ji alamar wata barazana.

A wata mujallar kiwon lafiya ta 'Sharecare' ta wallafa bayanan dakta Mehmet Oz, MD na Cibiyar kiwon lafiya ta Presbyterian-Columbia a birnin New York na Amurka da ya nuna cewa jikin dan Adam na da akalla sauwowin gashi 5,000,000.

Hakan ya ce amfanin kowace saiwar gashi shi ne fitar da silin gashi ɗaya, kuma gashin kai shi kadai ne na bangaren jikin mutum da ke saurin sauya kamannin dan Adam a zahiri.

Don haka in ji mujallar, yakan bai wa mutum damar isar da sako a yanayin zamantakewarsa.

Dakta Woru Baba Goni, babban daraktan Asibitin Koyarwa na Jami'ar jihar Yobe a arewa maso gabashin Najeriya ya shaida wa BBC cewa, gashi yana da matukar muhimmanci wajen samar wa da fatar jiki cikakkiyar lafiya da kuma kariya ta musamman daga kwayoyin cuta ko kuma wasu abubuwa da ka iya shiga su yi mata illa.

"Yana da muhimmanci wajen inganta lafiyar fatar jiki saboda ko wane silin gashi a jikin dan adam yana da hanyoyin jini, da jijiyoyi masu aikewa da sakonni zuwa kwakwalwa, da kuma sinadaran da ke tafiyar da kwayoyin halittar dan adam, da kuma kitsen ko man da ke kewaye da shi," in ji dakta Goni.

Saiwar gashin in ji masanin, na da nagartattun sinadarin kwayoyin halitta da ke taimaka wa wajen bayar da kariya da samun waraka daga duk wani ciwo ko kujewa a fata cikin sauri, ko kuma wasu abubuwa da ke gurbata muhallinmu kamar kura ko kuma wasu sinadarai da ke yawo a cikin iska.

"Gashi na kare fatar cikin daga illar daga turirin sinadaran da hasken rana ke haifarwa da ake kira, ''ultra-violet rays da kan lalata fata ko ya haifar mata da cutar sankara ko kansa," in ji shi.

Ya kuma kara da cewa, fatar kai na dauke da gashi ne saboda ya kan taimaka mata wajen rike zafi, baya ga akwata dan adama.

"Yana amfani wajen daidaita yanayin zafi ko kuma sanyi a jikin da adam, misali idan a lokacin sanyi ne gashi ya kan kare illolin da sanyi ka iya haifar wa fata jikin dan adam tun kafin ma mutum ya ji sanyin, zai hana isakr ta waje mai sanyi ta rasto kai tsaye ta cikin ita fatar ta aika sako mutum ya ji sanyi sosai."

Ainihin iskar mai dumi da ke gudana da ke tasowa daga cikin fatar mutum gashin kan hana iskar ficewa daga jiki, ya kan rike zafin yana dumama jiki ya hana jin sanyi sosai, tare da hana iska mai sanyi sosai ratsawa cikin jiki ta yadda za ta iya kawo illa.

A lokacin zafi kuma mutum ya kan rika yawan zufa, saboda zafin wajen zufar kan sayaya jiki saboda gashin kan hana wannan ruwan zufar gudana lokacin zafi.

Gashi a wasu bangarorin jikin dan adam na hana shigar kwayoyin cuta jikin da adam ta yadda za su kawo illa a jikin mutum.

Gashi na aikewa ta sako nan take idan akwai wani bakon abu kamar misali ko sauro ko wani kwaro ko wani abu da zai cutar wa dan adama, mutum zai iya ganewa akwai wani abu bako da ya zauna a kan gasin kafin ya kai ga fatar mutum

Yana hana kansar fata, kamar katanga ko garkuwa ne ya kan hana sinadain hasken rana shiga ciki fatar dan adam ai tsaye da ke haifar da kansar fata.. illa ga fatar dan adam U V Rays.

Masana sun kuma bayyana cewa a da da kuma yanzu, gashi na taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen kare dan adama daga kamuwa da cutar zazzabin cizon sauro.

Ga misali ga nau'in tamatar sauron nan na Anopheles da ke haddasa cutar zazzabin ko irin kwarin nan masu yawo a kasa, ba sa kaunar su ji gashi a jikin dan adama, saboda gashin ya kan yi saurin isar da sako ga jikin dan adam ta yadda asisrin wadannan bakin kwari kan tonu.

2. Gashin kai



Gashin kokon kai shi ya fi komai yawa a duka gashin da akan samu a sassan jikin dan adam.

Kuma kamar yadda dakta Baba Goni ya shaida wa BBC, gashin kai yana bayar da kariya a lokacin zafi da kuma sanyi wajen samarwa da kokon kai yanayin dumama lokacin sanyi , kana yana bayar da kariya daga wasu saurin samun kananan raunuka.

Ya kuma ce: "Kariya ce ta musamman gashi yake bai wa kokon kai daga rauni kai tsaye, tare da rage kaifin buguwa ko duka, har ma da kuma zafin rana da tururin sinadarin da ke fitowa daga hasken ranar wanda ka iya yin illa ga dan adam."

3. Gashin kunne



A cikin kunnen dan adam gashi kan hana kura da sauran cututtuka shiga ciki don kada su haifar da matsala.

Gashin da ke cikin kunnuwan mutum na aiki tare da irin dankon nan da ke tasowa a cikin kunne wajen kare duk wai datti ko burbudin kura daga shiga kai tsaye cikin dodon kunne.

Daga can cikin kunne, kananan gashin kan taimaka wajen ji da kuma daidaita motsin jikin dan adam.

"Kamar dai gashin hanci, gashin kunne na bayar da kariya daga kwayoyin cuta irins su bacteria, da kuma burbushin datti daga shiga cikin kunnne da ka iya haifar wa mutum da illa," in ji dakta Goni, "don haka gashin kunne ba wani abin damuwa bane, gaskiyar magana abu ne mai kyau."

A wasu lokuta mutane kan bar gashin kunne ya fita sosai a yayin da wasu kuma sukan saisaye shi.

4. Gashin ido



Gashin dake rike fatar ido kasa da sama garkuwa ce ta farko ga idanu, da kan bayar da kariya tare da korar duk wani bakon abu kamar su kura ko wani kwaro ko kuma dai wani bakon abu su fada cikin ido kai tsaye cikin saki kamar yadda binciken masana da dama ya nuna.

"Babbar kariya suke bai wa idanun daga kura, kwari ko kuma wasu bakin kananan abubuwa da ka iya fadawa cikin ido, kamar dai irin yadda gashin bakin bera ko kyanwa da sauran dabbobi makamantansu kan karbi sako cikin sauri da an taba wurin, a matsayin wani gargadin cewa akwai bakon abu a ke shirin yin kutse, da kan sa nan take suke rufe idanun," in ji dakta Goni.

Yayin da idanu ke bude, gashin idanun na cafko burbushi masu damshin ruwa, amma a lokacin suna rufe, sukan haifar da wata garkuwa da zai yi wahala wani abu ya iya ratsawa cikin idanun.

Kamar yadda mujallar kiwon lafiya ta Sharecare ta wallafa, gashin girar ido na tamakawa wajen isar da sako ga murfin ido cewar akwai bukatar ya rufe kofa don kare idanun.

"Tare da gashin girarmu da kuma goshi, gashin idanun kan kuma taimaka wajen yi wa idanu garkuwa daga tsananin haske rana,'' ba wai suna aiki ne a madadin tabaraon kare hasken rana ba, amma kuma suna taimakawa wajen tace hasken ranar da kan haske idanu."

5. Gashin hammata



Gashin hammata ya ka hana ainihin fatar hannu da ta kwibin mutum da rika goge juna da ka iya saka fata ta kwaile ko kuma ta kawo wata illa.

''Ya kan kare goguwar fata da fata a lokacin da mutum ke gudanar da wasu aikace-aikace ko kuma motsa jiki' in ji dakta Goni.

Amma kuma a wasu lokuta wasu na ganin barin gashi a yi yawa a hammata ba tae da askewa ba tamkar rashin tsafta ne.

Sai dai kuma masana sun bayyana cewa duka wannan ra'ayi ne, idan mutum yana so ya bari ba laifi bane, sai dai kuma idan babu tsaftacewa hakan zai iya haifar da zaunewar wasu kwayyoyin cuta a wurin da ka iya yi wa mutum illa,

"A duk lokacin da mutum ya yi zufa ta kuma hadun da dattin gashin hammata, kwayoyin cuta kan samu wurin zama don samun abinci, hakan ya kan sa hammatar mutum ta rika wari baya ga cutar da jikin dan adam," in ji likitan.

Amma kuma baya ga hakan ana iya cewa kamar yadda gashin da ke sauran sassan jikin mutum ke bayar da iri na su kariyar, haka ma na hammatar yana da na shi fa'idar muddin dai aka kula sosai.

6. Gashin hanci



Gashin da ke cikin hanci ya kan hada kura da ke dauke da wasu kwayoyin cuta da kwayar idon mutum ba za ta iya gani ba shigewa cikin hanci ya zuwa cikin huhun mutum zuwa sauran sassan cikin cikin mutum yadda za su iya kawo illa cikin sauri.

Gashin hanci kanana ne matuka, kuma a kan same su ne a kusa da kofofin hanci.

Amfanin wannan gashi dai shi ne kasancewa wata matata, wacce ke tace kura da datti daga shiga cikin kofoffin hancin.

Dakta Goni ya bayyana wa BBC muhimmancin gashin hanci da cewa yana samar da babbar kariya tare da rike damshin da ke cikin iskar da muke shaka.

"Gashin da ke cikin hanci ya ka hana ainihin kura da ke dauke da wasu kwayoyin cuta da mutum ba zai iya gani da ido ba su shiga ta kofofin hancin har su kai ga huhun mutum ko kuma cikin cikin mutum ya haifar masa da illoli," in ji shi.

Saboda gashin hanci na da muhimmiyar rawar da yake takawa wajen bayar da kariya in ji masananin ya kamata mutane su rika kaffa-kaffa da shi.

Ya kara da cewa "Bai kamata a rika tabawa ko tsige gashin hanci ba, yana korari duk wani bakon abu da ka iya kawo illa a cikin hancin da ma cikin jikin dan adam."

7. Gashin gira



Gashin gira wani muhimmin abu ne da ka kara kyaun fuskar dan adam, baya ga hana kura ko kuma kwayoyin cuta su shiga cikin ido farat daya in ji masana.

Suna kare idanu daga tsananin haske da kuma damshi.

Gashin gira a koda yaushe a shirye ya ke wajen tabbatar da ganin idanu sun kasance kalkal cikin tsafta.

Su kan kare saukar ruwan sama ko zufa shiga cikin idanu kai tsaye don mutum ya cigaba da gani sosai.

Ya kan kara wa idanu kyau da kwarjini, tare da kawata fuska, kana ya kan taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen aikewa da sako tsakanin mutum da mutum.

Gashin gira kan kare zubar ruwan sama ko zufa shiga kai tasye cikin idanu da kan sa mutum ya rika gani dishi-dishi.

Ya kan kuma bayar da kariya daga tsananin haske rana da sauran hasken da ka iya yin illa ga idanu.

8. Gashin mara



Gashin mara ko kuma gashin gaba kamar na hammata shi ma yana kare fatar da ke matse-matsin al'aura gogar juna ta yadda zai iya haifar da ciwo ko kuma kwailewar fatar.

Hakan na faruwa ne a yayin da mutum ke motsa jiki ko kuma yayin safuwa tsakanin mace da namiji, don haka gashin kan taimaka wajen hada dadewar fatar wajen.

Kana in ji masana gashin mara yana bayar da kariya ga duk wasu bakin abubuwa ko kwaoyi cuta da ka iya kai wa ga cikin al'aurar mutum.

Baya ga haka in ji masana irin dakta Woru Baba Goni, gashin kasan marar ko kuma al'aura kan taimaka wajen yaduwar kwayoyin cutar bacteria da sauransu.

"Ko shakka babu kamar gashin sauran sassan jikin dan adam, gashin mara yana taimakawa sosai musamman idan mutum ya kula da tsaftacewa a koda yaushe," in ji dakta Goni.

Ko wane baligi yana da gashin kasan mara, amma kuma kowa yana da hanyoyinsa daban na yadda ya ke yi da shi.

Yayin da wasu mutane kan bari gashin ya taru, wasu kuwa su kan aske ne a koda yaushe suka ga ya fito.

Don haka masana ke cewa aske gashin mara ko na hammata ko na wasu sassan jiki duka ra'ayi ne--- bai zama dole ba muddin mutum zai kasance mai tsaftace jiki.

8. Gemu



Gemu wani gashi ne da ke fita a kasan haba, da mukamiki, da leben kasa har ya zuwa wuyan mutum (namiji) wanda ya kai sekarun balaga, kuma in ji masana yanayin fitowarsa a fuskar dan adam ya danganta ga yawan sinadarin kwayoyin halittar da ke kawo sauyi a jikin mutum.

Gemu ya shima ya kan bayar da kariya ga fuskar dan adam daga wasu bakin abubuwa masu kawo illa, da kuma duk wani abu da ka iya buga ko gogar fuskar.

Haka kuma ya kan hana fitowar kirci ko kuraje a fuskar mutum, kuma garkuwa ne na musamman ga kewayen fatar fuskar da baki da kuma lebba da ba su cika kwari kamar sauran sassan jiki ba.

"Gemu yana da kyau wajen kawata fuska, sannan ga kuma kariya daga duk wani abu da ka iya kawo wa wurin farmaki a fili ko a boyae," in ji dakta Goni.

Don haka in ji likitan yana da kyau a rika kulawa da tsatace shi a koda yaushe saboda ya ka nadi kwayoyin cuta da ka iya siga cikin jikin mutum idan ba a kula sosai ba.

9. Gashin-baki



Gashin-baki shi ma dai kamar sauran yana da irin ta shi kariyar da yake bayarwa ga leben sama daga turirin sinadarin haske rana da ake kira 'ultraviolet radiation' from the sun, wanda ke haifar da cutar sankara.

Gashin baki na bukatar kulawa wajen tsaftacewa saboda gudun illolin da kwayoyin cuta kan haifar, masana akwai bukatar a koda yaushe a rika ragewa da kuma tsaftace gashin-bakin.

Kamar yadda a addinance da likitance har ma da al'adance yake da muhimmanci mutum ya rika tsaftace ko ina a jikinsa, haka shi ma yake da muhimmanci a rika tsaftace gashi musamman wanda ke boye a jikin mutum.

Masana sun bayyana cewa aske gashi musamman na hammata, da mara da kuma gemu da gashin-baki ra'ayi ne ba wai ya shafi kiwon lafiya ba, sai dai kuma idan babu tsatacewa askewar ya fi muhimmanci don gudun tara kwayoyin cuta.

"Idan mutum zai iya kula da tsaftar gashinsa bai zama lallai ace sai ya aske ba, amma kuma matsalar ita ce ba kowa bane yake iya kula ya tsaftace a lokacin da ya kamata, shi yasa askewar ya fi sauki," in ji Goni.

"Ko wane addini ko al'ada bai yarda da barin gashi babu tsafacewa ba, ballanta a batun likitanci ko kiwon lafiya,'' kwayoyin cuuta ka yi kaka-gida a inda aka bar gashi babu tsaftacewa, musamman idam mutum ya yi zufa wadannan kwayoyin cutar kan sa mutum ya rika wari," ya kara cewa.

Masana sun kuma bayyana cewa a kan gane lafiya ko rashin lafiyar mutum ta yanayin gashin kan mutum.

Galibi kuma in ji masanan karancin abinci da cutar kasa, da cutar koda, ko kuma doguwar jinya kan haifar da karyewar gashi, da canza launinsa da kuma sirancewarsa.

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